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Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience


Under construction


 MG 2904 MG 2860 MG 2862 MG 2891 MG 2869
























 MG 2869

Hip endoprostheses: ceramic acetabular cup

Description: A previously implanted ceramic acetabular cup with fixing cement attached.  These are most commonly used as part of total hip arthroplasty.


Left ilium with fused femur

A *remodelled surgical arthrodesis (a fusion across a joint space) of the hip, to eliminate movement of the joint.  The operation is performed when a joint is very painful or infected, and arthroplasty (surgical replacement of the joint surfaces) is not possible.  Some infectious cause such as tuberculosis might be implicated in a case such as this.   The fused joint, though now immobile, does not prevent walking as can be seen by the thick cortical bone of the proximal femur.

*Remodelling refers to the reshaping of bone at the cellular level.  The cyclical process of bone resorption and deposition at any given site takes place throughout life, and is the process by which bone heals and reshapes such as after a fracture, or in this case, after surgical fusion.


 MG 2891

Sacrum with sacralised fifth lumbar vertebra (L5)


Description: Adult sacrum with sacralised fifth lumbar vertebra and fused coccyx. The sacrum is part of the human pelvis, and during adolescence the fifth sacral vertebrae fuse together. In this case, the lower fifth lumbar vertebra is partly fused to the first sacral vertebra. It is estimated that 2-3% of the population today might be affected by this congenital disorder. The individual further displays the fusion of the coccyx (final segment of the vertebral column) to the sacrum, leading to the appearance of two additional sacral foramina.


Pathology: congenital disorder - sacralised fifth lumbar vertebra and fused coccyx

Orientation: Anterior