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Dr Erica D Watson

Dr Erica D Watson

Lecturer in Reproductive Biology

Lister Research Prize Fellow

Erica Watson is accepting applications for PhD students.

Office Phone: +44 (0) 1223 333858, Lab: +44 (0) 1223 746744

Research Interests

Epigenetic changes accrued in the genome throughout one’s lifetime can contribute to an increased risk for disease. These changes may occur through exposure to environmental stressors (e.g., toxins, nutrient deficiency, etc.) that alter epigenetic factors, such as patterns of DNA methylation, ultimately causing gene misexpression. Exposure to these environmental factors in utero may alter epigenetic programming, such that the nine months before you are born may have a profound impact on your health later in life. Mounting evidence also indicates that maternal, paternal or even grandparental exposure may contribute to congenital malformations and/or metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in children and grandchildren. This non-conventional inheritance occurs via epigenetic rather than genetic inheritance, and implicates the germline. Very little is understood regarding transgenerational mechanisms of inheritance. Our aim is to explore how developmental abnormalities and disease risk is epigenetically transmitted between generations. Further understanding this mechanism will drastically impact human health.

Transgenerational epigenetic effects of folate metabolism

My group currently explores the mechanisms behind the transgenerational epigenetic effects of folate metabolism during fetal and placental development. Folate is a vitamin important for the one-carbon metabolism and methylation of cell components (e.g., DNA). To study this, we use a genetic mouse model with a mutation in a key gene involved in folate metabolism (Mtrrgt) that disrupts folate metabolism and results in similar metabolic effects as human folate deficiency. We recently showed using highly controlled genetic pedigrees that when either maternal grandparent carried the Mtrrgt mutant allele, it was sufficient to cause developmental abnormalities and epigenetic instability in their grandprogeny at midgestation (Padmanabhan et al, 2013 Cell). This occurred even when the mother and the grandprogeny are genetically wildtype for the Mtrr mutation. Some of the abnormalities (e.g., neural tube, heart and placental defects) persisted after embryo transfer experiments and for up to 5 generations, implicating epigenetic inheritance as a mechanism.

Our research goal is to use the Mtrr mouse model to understand the mechanism behind the transgenerational effects of folate metabolism on development by breaking it down into the specific properties of each generation (i.e., grandparental, maternal and placental/embryonic effects) using epigenetic, molecular and embryo manipulation techniques. Ultimately, this will help us explain the role of folate metabolism during development, which has eluded researchers for decades. As well, it will give us clues as to how transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypes is achieved.

Current lab members

Gina Blake (PhD student, Wellcome Trust 4-year PhD Programme in Developmental Mechanisms)

Katerina Menelaou (PhD student, Newnham PhD studentship and A.G. Leventis scholarship)

Panayiotis Laouris (Part II student)

Kevin Tan (Part II student)

Main collaborators

Prof Anne Ferguson-Smith (Dept Genetics, University of Cambridge)

Prof William Colledge (Dept PDN, University of Cambridge)

Prof Graham Burton and Dr Hong Wa Yung (Dept PDN, University of Cambridge)

Dr Andrew Murray (Dept PDN, University of Cambridge)

Dr Russell Hamilton (CTR, University of Cambridge)

Dr Eric Miska and Dr Katharina Gapp (Gurdon Institute, Cambridge)


Editorial Board Member

Co-guest editor for Special Issue on 'Non-conventional Inheritance', Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology

Associate editor, Reproduction

Editorial review board member, Environmental Epigenetics



Part IB Human Reproduction

Part IB Veterinary Reproductive Biology

Part IB NST Physiology

PDN Part II, P2 module


Key Publications

Padmanabhan N, Menelaou K, Gao J, Anderson A, Blake GET, Li T, Daw BN, Watson ED, (2018) Abnormal folate metabolism causes age-, sex-, and parent-of-origin specific haematological defects in mice, Journal of Physiology, 596(18): 4341-60

Blake GET, Rakoczy J, Watson ED, (2018) Epigenetics of transgenerational inheritance of disease in T. Tollefsbol (Ed.) Epigenetics in Human Disease, 2nd Edition (pp. 805-836). London: Academic Press, Elsevier

Padmanabhan N, Rakoczy J, Kondratowicz M, Menelaou K, Blake GET, Watson ED, (2017), Multigenerational analysis of sex-specific phenotypic differences at midgestation caused by abnormal folate metabolismEnvironmental Epigenetics, 3(4): 1-17

Rakoczy J, Padmanabhan N, Krzak AM, Kieckbusch J, Cindrova-Davies T, Watson ED, (2017), Dynamic expression of TET1, TET2, and TET3 dioxygenases in mouse and human placentas throughout gestationPlacenta, 59:46-56

Blake GET, Watson ED, (2016), Unravelling the complex mechanisms of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 33: 101-7

Watson ED, Rakoczy J, (2016), Fat eggs shape offspring health, Nature Genetics, 48: 478-9

Watson ED, (2016), Transferring fragments of paternal metabolism to the offspring, Cell Metabolism, 23(3): 401-2

Padmanabhan N, Jia D, Geary-Joo C, Wu X, Ferguson-Smith AC, Fung E, Bieda M, Snyder FF, Gravel RA, Cross JC, Watson ED, (2013), Mutation in folate metabolism causes epigenetic instability and transgenerational effects on development, Cell, 155(1): 81-93

Padmanabhan N, Watson ED, (2013), Lessons from the one-carbon metabolism: passing it along to the next generation, Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 27(6): 637-43

Colleoni F, Padmanabhan N, Yung HW, Watson ED, Cetin I, Tissot van Patôt MC, Burton GJ, Murray AJ, (2013), Suppression of mitochondrial electron transport chain function in the hypoxic human placenta: a role for miR-210 and protein synthesis inhibition, PLoS ONE, 8(1): e55194

Roseboom TJ, Watson ED, (2012), The next generation of disease risk: are the effects of prenatal nutrition transmitted across generations? Evidence from animal and human studies, Placenta, 33 (Suppl 2): e40-e44

Cherukad J, Wainwright V, Watson ED, (2012), Spatial and temporal expression of folate transporters and metabolic enzymes during mouse placental development, Placenta, 33(5): 440-8

Yung HW, Hemberger M, Watson ED, Senner CE, Jones CP, Kaufmann RJ, Charnock-Jones DS, Burton GJ, (2012), Endoplasmic reticulum stress disrupts placental morphogenesis: implications for human intrauterine growth restriction, Journal of Pathology, 228(4): 554-64

Watson ED, Hughes M, Simmons DG, Natale DR, Sutherland AE, Cross JC, (2011), Cell-cell adhesion defects in Mrj mutant trophoblast cells are associated with failure to pattern the chorion during early placental development, Developmental Dynamics, 240(11): 2505-19

Watson ED, Geary-Joo C, Hughes M, Cross JC, (2007), The Mrj co-chaperone mediates keratin turnover and prevents the formation of toxic inclusion bodies in trophoblast cells of the placenta, Development, 134(9): 1809-17

Watson ED, Cross JC, (2005), Development of structures and transport functions in the mouse placenta, Physiology, 20(3): 180-93

Plain English

We are trying to figure out how our environment affects the development of our grandchildren. For example, we know that a poor diet can alter how our genes are expressed and increase our risk for disease. Epigenetics is a layer of instructions that tells a cell how to control gene expression. This involves changes in chemicals called methyl groups that attach to DNA or RNA and flip their 'on/off' switch. We are interested in understanding how folic acid deficiency in particular alters epigenetics of cells to cause defects in maternal physiology and fetal and placental development. We are trying to understand what epigenetic changes are made in these cells and whether these changes can be passed from one generation to the next."

Above: Mouse embryo and placenta at embryonic (E) day 10.5.

Above: Normal mouse embryo development from embryonic (E) day 9.5 to E15.5. Click to enlarge.

Above: Mrj mutant trophoblast stem cells immunostained for keratin 18 (green), actin filaments (red) and DNA (blue). Click to enlarge.

Mouse embryo development over time

Transgenerational epigenetic effects of folate metabolism